Relative to our own capability to act, believe, intend, or feel in various ways, choice is the process by which we actually do act, believe, intend, and feel. While some in the cognitive sciences feel that our choices may be entirely a product of chemical processes and circumstance, most people believe at some level that choice is a function of some inviolable personal free will or agency.
For purposes of discussion, let (omega) be the universe of all possible actions, beliefs, intents, and feelings. Let be a group of people, and let the range of actions, beliefs, intents, and feelings possible for be called and constrained by . We could say that where for a given individual is the range of actions, beliefs, intents, and feelings possible for that individual.
We usually think of compulsion as forcing a person to undertake some action/belief/intent/feeling . Alternately, we can state more generally that compulsion is the ability to restrict a person’s or group of people’s arbitrarily. A person bound by options can operate within ‘s range of options. They can even limit themselves further to a smaller subset of . But they cannot operate outside of their own range of possibilities, in the space defined by . Governments have some abilities to restrict or expand for an individual and for a group, though thankfully this sort of interference is significantly limited by constitutions in the United States and other countries. Theoretically, a totally despotic government could cause somebody to do an arbitrary by restricting their set of options until and is the only option left.
In society we tend to accept restrictions in some situations and oppose it in others. The acceptability of these restrictions seems to be governed both by legal processes and by the feelings of the public at large. Representative government still offers no perfect solution, but generally a tension of these two forces results in policy that reflects popular opinion except in certain cases where the law intervenes on behalf of minority groups.
The Public Interest
Ultimately, many instances of expanding for one person results in limiting for another. As stated previously, . If is not disjoint (i.e. there is overlap between various s), then the potential for conflict resides at for any and . So if one option in my is to park in parking spot 457, then, once I have parked there, parking in spot 457 is no longer an option for anyone else. So who says I can limit other people’s options like that? Well, perhaps I have purchased a parking pass for that spot—using prices to limit demand for a certain option can be effective.
But for some instances of there is no established system of conflict resolution. So how should these conflicts (or potential conflicts) be dealt with? Are there some ground rules?
The idea of “general welfare” can be helpful. Indeed, this is enshrined in the U.S. Constitution’s Preamble as one of the primary purposes for the existence of government. And even when it’s not explicitly invoked as a legal doctrine, general welfare is frequently a guiding force. For example, the substantial injury to the welfare of blacks who were denied the vote in the past was not outweighed by the minor, supposed benefit of a sense of superiority this allowed whites to carry around, and this fact was acknowledged when the judges deciding Brown v. the Board (I can’t remember the full case name) acted to “promote the general welfare.”
We all hope that jurists, legislators, and executive officers will be wise and thoughtful judges of what will best promote the benefit of society as a whole. But do they always do so?